History

 

Introduction

 

Although there may well have been an earlier residence on the site, the first known structure at Westminster was an Anglo-Saxon church, dedicated to St Peter, which was built in the eighth century AD. At this time Westminster was effectively an island with the River Thames on the east and two branches of the River Tyburn, a tributary of the Thames, surrounding the other sides. It was known as the West Minster (the West Monastery) to differentiate it from the East Minster (St Paul's), which stood in the heart of the former Roman walled town of Londinium, which was the main urban centre at that time. The church was rebuilt as a Benedictine Abbey in the tenth century AD and at this time it was adopted as a Royal church starting a long association with Government that endures to this day.

 

The Palace

 

It was Edward the Confessor (1042-66) who founded the first Royal residence on the site and who also rebuilt the Abbey. The latter occupied the central ground on the island and accordingly the Royal complex - which presumably included a Hall, Royal apartments and ancillary buildings - was built close to the waterfront. The Royal interest continued following the Norman invasion as William I was keen to prove his legitimacy by demonstrating continuity with Edward's regime. By the late eleventh century AD, Westminster was unique in England for being known as a Palace (derived from palatium in reference to the imperial residences that occupied the Palatine hill in Rome) and a clear indication of its special status. Its importance can also be derived from the construction of the Great Hall, today known as Westminster Hall, by William II (1087-1100). At the time of its completion, around 1099, it was Europe's largest building.

Although it has been extensively modified in later years, Westminster Hall was built by William II.

Medieval Period

 

Throughout the early Norman period, the nominal capital of England was Winchester although in reality the Royal court was a mobile entity that moved around the country from site to site. However, during the reigns of Henry II (1154-80) and King John (1199-1216), some Governmental institutions, such as the Royal Exchequer, became entrenched in Westminster. This trend continued during the reign of Henry III (1216-72) who rebuilt Westminster Abbey and permanently based more administrative functions at the Palace including the Court of Common Pleas (which was one of the demands of Magna Carta). In addition the Court of the King's Bench and the Chancery Court were established at Westminster whilst the first known Parliament sat there in 1259 within the Painted Chamber. This trend continued during the reign of Edward I (1372-1307) although the venue altered between the Painted Chamber, White Chamber (later the permanent venue for the House of Lords) or Westminster Abbey. However, by the 1350s, the extent of these administrative roles was increasingly encroaching upon the Palace's Royal residential function. Accordingly the palatial site was divided in two. The northern part, including Westminster Hall, became used exclusively for administration and Parliamentary purposes. The southern portion, which became known as the Privy Palace, was solely for the monarch. An additional Great Hall was added at this time and later Edward I rebuilt St Stephen's Chapel into a substantial two storey structure.

 

Further modifications were made to the Palace by Edward III in 1342 and again in the 1360s when Henry Yevele, Master Mason, was commissioned to oversee the work. He built the Clock Tower, which contained a bell named 'Edward of Westminster' for regulating the timings of the adjacent law courts, and also constructed the Jewel Tower. The latter was designed as a secure stowage for Royal treasure which had been removed from the Tower of London. Yevele also remodelled Westminster Hall heightening the walls and adding the Gothic windows. Hugh Herland, carpenter, was commissioned to create the vastly impressive hammer-beam timber roof that is still in place today.

The Jewel Tower was originally built to serve as a secure stowage for the Royal Treasury.

Permanent Home of Parliament

 

Westminster Palace was devastated by fire in 1512 but this disaster ultimately led to the site becoming the permanent home of Parliament. The extent of the damage is unknown but it prompted Henry VIII to abandoned the site as a Royal residence in favour of the newly built Palace of Whitehall. Part of the Privy Palace at Westminster was demolished to provide building materials for this new structure but clearly significant parts were left standing as the Queen's Chamber was used as the permanent venue for the House of Lords. The Commons used the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey until 1547 when they were given the abandoned St Stephen's Chapel that had been closed following the English Reformation. The Jewel Tower became the storage site for Records of Parliament around the late sixteenth century and this evolved into it becoming the formal repository for Acts and Ordinances from the House of Lords. The decaying structure of the Jewel Tower was repaired and upgraded in 1717 with purpose built storages for the records. A brick built parapet, capped in Portland Stone, was added as part of these upgrades. In 1801 the House of Lords was relocated to the Lesser Hall, once occupied by the Court of Requests.

 

On Thursday 16 October 1834, the Palace of Westminster was gutted by fire. In the early evening, two under floor stoves situated beneath the House of Lords had been inappropriately used for burning obsolete accounting equipment. A fire ensued that engulfed the House of Lords and quickly spread through the rest of the Palace although the prevailing winds meant the Jewel Tower, complete with its precious records, and Westminster Hall were saved. Parts of St Stephen's Chapel were also salvageable including the Undercroft Chapel.

 

New Westminster Palace

 

A Royal Commission was appointed to select a design for a new Parliament building and in 1836 held a public competition. A gothic style structure, proposed by Charles Barry, was chosen and work started in 1840. The plan included reclaiming eight acres of land from the River Thames and incorporated the surviving fragments of the Palace (excluding the Jewel Tower) into the design. The facility was purpose-built for Parliamentary business with all key elements of the Governmental machine - the Sovereign's throne, the House of Lords and the House of Commons - positioned in a straight line through the centre of the structure. Construction took significantly longer than expected but the building was sufficiently complete for the House of Lords to start using their chamber in 1847 followed by the Commons in 1852. The new facility included a purpose-built, fire-proof document storage - the Victoria Tower - and accordingly the Jewel Tower became superfluous.

 

With the outbreak of World War II and the risk of aerial bombardment of London, Parliament relocated to Church House in Westminster which proved to be a prudent move as the Palace was damaged by German bombers on fourteen occasions. The most notable attack occurred on 10 May 1941 when both the House of Commons and Westminster Hall were hit by incendiary bombs; whilst the fire brigade saved the latter, the Commons was completely gutted. The Jewel Tower also suffered significant devastation when it too was hit by an incendiary. Nevertheless in June 1941, the Commons moved back into the Palace and sat in the House of Lords. The Lords themselves remained in Church House but returned to the Palace in 1950.

 

The Palace of Westminster was finally transferred from Royal control to the Houses of Parliament themselves in 1965 although the Crown maintained joint control of Westminster Hall and the historic Chapel of St Mary Undercroft.

 

 

Bibliography

 

Allen, R (1976). English Castles. Batsford, London.

Armitage, E.S (1904). Early Norman Castles of the British Isles. English Historical Review Vol 14 (Reprinted by Amazon).

Ashbee, J (2013). The Jewel Tower. English Heritage, London.

Cherry, J and Stratford, N (1995). Westminster Kings and the Medieval Palace of Westminster. British Museum, London.

Carpenter, D (2004). The Struggle for Mastery. Penguin Books Ltd, London.

Creighton, O.H (2002). Castles and Landscapes: Power, Community and Fortification in Medieval England. Equinox, Bristol.

Douglas, D.C and Greeaway, G.W (ed) (1981). English Historical Documents Vol 2 (1042-1189). Routledge, London.

Douglas, D.C and Rothwell, H (ed) (1975). English Historical Documents Vol 3 (1189-1327). Routledge, London.

Douglas, D.C and Myers, A.R (ed) (1975). English Historical Documents Vol 4 (1327-1485). Routledge, London.

Douglas, D.C and Williams, C.H (ed) (1975). English Historical Documents Vol 5 (1485-1558). Routledge, London.

Douglas, D.C, Coward, B and Gaunt, P (ed) (1975). English Historical Documents Vol 5B (1603-1660). Routledge, London.

Douglas, D.C and Browning, A (ed) (1975). English Historical Documents Vol 6 (1660-1714). Routledge, London.

Goodall, J.A.A (2000). The medieval Palace of Westminster. London.

Morris, M  (2009). A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and forging of Britain. Windmill Books, London.

Shenton, C (2012). The Day Parliament Burned Down. Oxford.

Stratford, J (2012). Richard II and the English Royal Treasure. Woodbridge.

Stubbs, W (1882). Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and Edward II. Rolls, London.

What's There?

Houses of Parliament: The tour includes Westminster Hall plus both the Houses of Lords and Commons. Highlights include the spectacular medieval hammer-beam roof of Westminster Hall. Note that this tour is only available when Parliament is not sitting (Saturdays or Parliamentary Holidays). (Click here for Official Website)

 

Jewel House:  A three storey building which is architecturally interesting and has some impressive sculpted limestone capitals on display as well as the remains of some timber foundations. However, with no parapet access nor any real interpretation of Westminster Palace (other than a model for children), there isn’t a huge amount to see. (Click here for Official Website)

Westminster Palace Layout. The palace was originally contained within a single walled enclosure but was divided into two when the legal and administrative roles started to encroach upon the site’s use as a Royal residence. The medieval palace was devastated by fires in 1512 and 1834. After the latter, it was completely rebuilt into the structure seen today although Westminster Hall and St Stephen's Undercroft were incorporated into the new building. The Jewel Tower also survived as a detached structure.

Westminster Hall. The Great Hall was built by William II and, at the time of construction, was the largest building in Europe. The hugely impressive medieval hammer-beam roof dates from the late fourteenth century.

Jewel Tower. This tower was built during the reign of Edward III and partly encroached upon land owned by Westminster Abbey. Its original purpose was a secure stowage for Royal treasure but it later became the repository for documentation from the House of Lords. In 1869 it was taken over by the Board of Trade Standards Department who used it until 1938.

Victoria Tower. Built as part of the 1864 Gothic re-imagining of the palace, Victoria Tower was intended to serve as the Royal entrance into Parliament. The tower also incorporated fire-proof chambers to serve as a replacement document repository for the Jewel Tower.

Getting There

The visitor access for the Palace of Westminster and the Jewel Tower are both found off Abingdon Street. There is an underground car park in immediate vicinity of the Jewel Tower off Great College Street. The nearest Underground station is Westminster.

Car Parking Option

SW1P 3SE

51.497728N 0.126406W

Palace of Westminster

SW1A 2PW

51.499891N 0.125381W

Jewel Tower

SW1P 3JY

51.498474N 0.126418W

PALACE OF WESTMINSTER

including the JEWEL TOWER

Westminster was established as a Royal residence by Edward the Confessor. It was later adopted by the Normans and converted into a substantial Palace. By the thirteenth century some components of Government had permanently based themselves on the site and, in the sixteenth century, it became the enduring home of Parliament.